Swimming hazards and safety measure

Swimming hazards and safety measure
Swimming hazards and safety measure
As a  swimmer swimming hazard is one thing you should put into consideration, without a proper swimming kit measures toward a particular swimming goal-achieving this is impossible.

Drowning;  water accident and resuscitation

  • Drowning is a type of asphyxia related to either aspiration of fluids or obstruction of the airway caused by spasms of the larynx.
  • Drowning is a "major cause of accidental death" in the world. It occurs in swimming, diving, boating, and other areas.
  • Drowning can also occur in the home in pools, bathtubs, and washtubs, even in water that is few inches deep.

Failure to learn the art of swimming the knowledge of life-saving and water safety can endanger life.

       
       
    As a result of the annual loss of lives in drowning, the knowledge and teaching of survival swimming are important in its reduction and prevention.

    Various ways are drowning occur such as Rain Floods, overflowing of rivers and streams, sea ( Bar Beach ) canal and locks,  plane crash and even in the bathtub.

    Causes of drowning 

    Drawing may results from more than one cause, in some cases, people died in the water from a heart attack or stroke or overexertion, Fainting and epileptic attack in water just as they do on land, and loss of consciousness itself may result in accidental death.
    Swimming hazards and safety measure
    Occasionally someone is struck by lightning while swimming or wading. Drowning may follow a head injury sustained in diving or a collision with a log or other submerged object while swimming.

    Cramps in the muscles of the hand, foot thigh, or abdominal wall may incapacitate a swimmer because of pain and fright.

    Scrapping muscle undergoes marked sperm when they suddenly contract.

    Relief is usually obtained by stretching the involved muscles and applying firm pressure from the time the first twinges of pain are felt until the sperm is gone.

    A drowning person may see either struggling in the water of making ineffectual movement, floating faces down on the surface of the water, or lying motionless underwater

    Many people think very quickly as they lost buoyancy by swallowing water and by aspirating it into the lungs, where it replaced the tidal air (the volume of air normally inhaled and exhaled) 

    Swimming hazards and safety measure
    The victim sinks beneath the surface and begins to lose consciousness from asphyxia.

    Infective motions cease and the specific gravity of the victim's body becomes greater than that of the water it displaces.

    Water pressure on the victim's chest wall increase as the victim descends, forcing air out of the lunch victim the victim is unconscious but still may be revived if an attempt is made immediately.

    Reflect sperm of the larynx

    Asphyxiaay occurs from the reflex sperm of the larynx which closes the Airway.

    This condition may occur immediately when the victim plunges into the water, especially if the water is cold or has the result of pain, fear, or other conditions.

    Although the victim lost consciousness after slipping beneath the surface, the lungs may contain little or no water.

    Swimming hazards and safety measure saltwater

    If a person Swallows and aspirates a large amount of saltwater, the high concentration of salt will cause a large amount of fluid from the bloodstream to pass into flood the lungs.

    death may occur from shock as a sudden fall in the blood pressure brings about circulatory collapse.

    Submersion in Freshwater

    Freshwater sucked into a person's lungs enter the bloodstream and dilute the blood as the salt concentration of the blood lowers, red blood cells are destroyed.

    Water may be absorbed so rapidly that the victim's lungs are relatively dry.

    More commonly tremendous swelling takes place, and frothy, pink-tinged fluid accumulates in the lungs as a result of ruptured red blood cells.

    Adequate ventilation of the lunch after rescue may be impossible because of the water blockages, death may occur from either asphyxia or heart failure.

    Artificial respiration

    In the exhalation phase, the muscles relax allowing the ribs and diaphragm to resume their former positions.

    The chest cavity becomes smaller and air flows outward. in adults, at rest, the rate of breathing is about 12 -18 times per minute.

    The mouth or mouth or nose techniques provide more ventilation by using direct health pressure, exerted by the rescuer to inflate the victim's lungs immediately.

    It also enables the rescuer to obtain more accurate information on the volume.

    Pressure and timing of effort needed to inflate the victim's lungs then are afforded by other methods, another advantage of this method of artificial respiration, aside from its effectiveness in ventilating the lungs is that it may be given in the water, in a boat underneath the wreckage, and in other places where immediately resuscitation might be necessary.

    When breathing movements have stopped and there is a lack of oxygen and following signs and symptoms are usually seen :
    • The victim's tongue, lip, and fingernail becomes blue
    • There is a loss of consciousness

    The Pupils becomes dilated (enlarged)

    The objective of artificial respiration is to maintain and open Airways through the mouth and nose or the stomach and to restore breathing by maintaining an alternating increase and decrease in the expansion of the chest.

    The rate of breathing is somewhat faster in children and varies greatly with exercise, excitement, and disease.

    Approximately I pint of air in inhale of with each breath by resting adults but not all of this enters the lungs tissues.

    For artificial respiration to be effective, the volume of air that enters must exceed the amount that is already in the air passages and that is needed for normal respiration.

    Hence, air should be forced into the victim, The does not store oxygen but need a continuous, fresh supply to carry on the life processes.

    Oxygen must be available to all the body cells and is transported throughout the body by the blood.

    Air entering the body is 21 percent oxygen and 0.04 percent carbon dioxide. The remainder is largely nitrogen.
    • Air leaving the body is 16 percent oxygen and 4 percent carbon dioxide.
    The mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose technique of artificial respiration is the most practical method for emergency ventilation of a person of any age who has stopped breathing regardless of why breathing has stopped.

    Extensive studies have indicated that mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose resuscitation are superior to any of the manual techniques.

    The average person may die in 6 minutes or less if his oxygen supply is cut off, it is often impossible to tell exactly when a person has stopped breathing. He may be very near death when you first discover him.

    Therefore artificial respiration should always be started as rapidly as possible, overdosage of drugs, or electrical shock.

    In these cases, it is off necessary to continue artificial respiration for a long time. When a victim revives, the person should be treated for shock. Physician care is necessary during the recovery period.

    Artificial respiration

    A. Remove any foreign matters from the victim's mouth.

    B. Tilt back the head.

    C. Seal your mouth over the victim and nose exhale.

    D. Listen for exhalation.

    E. One e sharp blow between the shoulder blades may be needed to dislodge an obstruction in the breathing passage.

    There is also The chin two a method by which the victim is grasped under the chin with one of your hands as you took him to shore.

    This will only work effectively with a semi-conscious or unconscious victim, if the rescue is made in a swimming pool there is a proper way of lifting unto the desk.

    Seat both of the victims and on the Edge and hold on to them while you climb out then grab both wrists and drop the waiting back into the water a bit so that you can gain momentum pulling out.

    More easily lift the upper portion of the body over the edge and maintain the leg up from the water.

    The expired air method of artificial respiration or what is more commonly called mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is currently the most widely approved form of artificial respiration.

    In performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation place the waiting on his back and quickly make sure there is no foreign matter in his mouth.

    Tilt has head fully backward by placing one hand under his neck the other hand on top of his head.
    Swimming hazards and safety measure

    When the tilt has been achieved move the hand under the neck does the victim's chin opening the mouth make sure that the tongue is forward in the mouth wide and place it tightly around the victim's mouth.

    Wash the victim's chest to determine when it expands and stop blowing when it does, remove the mouth and listen to any expiration.

    If the chest does not Rise check again to make sure that the breathing passage is free of obstruction.

    You might have to turn the victim on his side and striking sharply between the shoulder blade to dislodges whatever is obstructing the breath.

    Begin the resuscitation at a rapid rate and then listen to the rate until you are administrating one breath every 5 seconds, if the victim is smaller such as a child you may wish to see your mouth over the victim's mouth and nose.

    And breathing should be shorter, under no circumstance should you blow violently into a baby's lungs.
    Swimming hazards and safety measure
    Although artificial respiration can be carried out following the instructions above is strongly recommended that it is best to have actual physical instructions given to you by a competent instructor.
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