Treatment plan and medication advice of autumn diarrhea

Treatment plan and medication advice of autumn diarrhea
Treatment plan and medication advice of autumn diarrhea 

Autumn diarrhea is a disease caused by rotavirus infection. It is the main cause of diarrhea in infants and young children in autumn and winter. It is widespread and distributed worldwide. It is transmitted through feces-oral transmission, and can also be caused by aerosol infection through respiratory tract infections. . It mostly occurs in infants and young children from 6 to 24 months old, and it is rare for those over 4 years old. 

The onset is rapid, and vomiting often occurs in the first 1 to 2 days of the illness, followed by diarrhea. Stool frequency and water, no fishy smell. The disease is a self-limiting disease. Most patients have a good prognosis. Vomiting gradually stops after a few days, and diarrhea is reduced. Children who are not breastfed recover faster. The natural course of the disease is about 3 to 8 days 

Clinical classification

1. The disease can be divided into mild, moderate, and severe according to clinical manifestations:

(1) Mild type: no fever, stool less than 6 times a day, no dehydration, mild symptoms;

(2) Medium-sized: no fever or mild fever, diarrhea about 10 times a day, vomiting, polydipsia, moderate dehydration, gastrocnemius spasm, rapid pulse, blood pressure drop, the course of 3 to 5 days;

(3) Severe: frequent vomiting and diarrhea, stool dozens of times a day, severe dehydration with acidosis, drop in blood pressure, cold extremities, the course of the disease is 5-7 days.

2. According to the type of rotavirus that causes the disease, it can be divided into:

(1) Group A: The most common, often causing diarrhea in infants and young children.

(2) Group B: Most infected persons are adults.

(3) Group C: also mainly affects children.

Epidemiology Infectious

Autumn diarrhea is an infectious disease, which belongs to category C infectious disease.

Source of infection of Epidemiology Infectious

Patients and asymptomatic carriers are the main sources of infection. Many domestic animals and poultry can carry rotavirus, which is a potential source of human infection.

a way for spreading Epidemiology Infectious 

1. Fecal-oral transmission is the main route. Pathogens in the feces contaminate food. Some patients do not wash their hands before and after meals so that the pathogens in the feces can enter the human body by mouth.

2. It can also be spread through aerosols and respiratory tracts. The pathogen can be present in the patient's pharynx secretions or in the air, and people can be infected after inhaling it. 

The prone crowd of Epidemiology Infectious

1. This disease mostly occurs in children, especially infants and young children from 6 months to 2 years old.

2. People who do not pay attention to personal hygiene, poor eating habits, and defecate anywhere.

3. People with insufficient immunity, such as those who suffer from immunodeficiency or use drugs that affect immune function, and the elderly.

A good season of autumn diarrhea 

Infant diarrhea occurs mostly in autumn and winter.

Cause Overview of autumn diarrhea 

Autumn diarrhea is a disease caused by rotavirus infection. It can be transmitted into the human body through the fecal-oral route, through aerosols, and the respiratory tract. After infection with rotavirus, whether it develops depends on the number of invading viruses and the immune status of the body. Depending on the patient's physiological characteristics, when the body's immune function is weakened, the virus is prone to infection and disease.

Basic cause of autumn diarrhea 

The main pathogenesis of rotavirus gastroenteritis lies in the intestinal absorption dysfunction, not the intestinal secretion function. Rotavirus infection is mainly in the intestinal tract and generally does not invade the whole body. Rotavirus mainly invades the duodenum and jejunum. The virus can replicate in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, shortening and blunt villi, cell deformation, vacuoles, and then necrosis, resulting in a decline in the ability of the small intestine to digest and absorb sucrose and lactose, poor absorption of D-xylose, and synergy with glucose The function of promoting sodium transport is also affected, which reduces the ability of the small intestine to absorb glucose and sodium and also affects the absorption of chlorine. 

The concentration of sodium and chloride in the stool of sick children can be 2 to 4 times higher than normal, causing a large amount of water to accumulate in the intestinal cavity, leading to diarrhea and vomiting. After the lactose drops until the colon is broken down by bacteria, the osmotic pressure is further increased and the symptoms are aggravated. A lot of vomiting and diarrhea lose water and electrolytes, leading to dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte disorders.

symptom Overview of autumn diarrhea 

The disease has a rapid onset, often accompanied by fever and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, most of which have no obvious symptoms of infection and poisoning. Vomiting often occurs in the first 1 to 2 days of illness, followed by diarrhea, more than ten to dozens of times a day. The stool frequency and water are large, and it is yellow watery, or egg-patterned with a small amount of mucus and no fishy smell. Patients with low or moderate fever, few high fevers, often have mild abdominal pain, myalgia, and headache. Some sick children have symptoms such as a runny nose and mild cough. Fever and vomiting mostly disappear after 2 to 3 days, but diarrhea can last for 3 to 5 days or 1 week, and a few can last for 2 weeks.

Typical symptoms

1. Group A Rotavirus

It mainly affects infants and young children, with an incubation period of 2 to 3 days. The onset is more rapid, usually first with vomiting, followed by diarrhea, more than ten to dozens of times a day, watery stools, or yellow-green loose stools, with a sour smell. Patients with low or moderate fever, few high fevers, often have mild abdominal pain, myalgia, and headache. Some sick children have symptoms such as a runny nose and mild cough. Fever and vomiting mostly disappear after 2 to 3 days, but diarrhea can last for 3 to 5 days or 1 week, and a few can last for 2 weeks. Mildly ill children are more common. Occasionally, vomiting, severe diarrhea, dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances can lead to death. 

2. Group B rotavirus

Infected persons are mostly adults, the incubation period is about 1 to 4 days, sudden diarrhea, a lot of watery stools, accompanied by vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, abdominal distension, bowel, fatigue, etc., fever is rare. Most of the disease course is relieved after 5-6 days, and a few last for about 2 weeks.

3. Group C viruses

It mainly affects children, with symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The incubation period is about 24 hours, and the course of the disease is 2 to 3 days.

Accompanying symptoms

Often complicated by dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte disorders.

complication

Rotavirus infection can also invade multiple organs, and can produce neurological symptoms, such as convulsions; some children may have abnormal serum myocardial enzymes, suggesting myocardial involvement.

Treatment principles

There is no specific antiviral treatment for this disease, and symptomatic treatment is the main method. People with severe vomiting and diarrhea should fast, and then gradually resume their diet. Patients with mild symptoms can choose an oral rehydration solution. Patients with severe dehydration should receive intravenous fluids, while correcting acidosis and electrolyte disturbances, paying special attention to potassium and zinc supplements. You can choose intestinal mucosal protective agents, microecological preparations, and antiemetics to relieve the symptoms of patients. Avoid using antidiarrheal agents, which will inhibit gastrointestinal motility and increase the absorption of toxins.

medical treatment

1. Montmorillonite powder

It can be used as an intestinal mucosal protective agent for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea. Montmorillonite powder can evenly cover the intestinal mucosa for 6 hours and can absorb various pathogenic factors, thereby improving symptoms. 

2. Probiotics

For example, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus licheniformis also have certain effects on rotavirus gastroenteritis.

3. Antiemetic drugs

When the patient's vomiting symptoms are severe, antiemetic drugs can be selected to relieve the patient's vomiting symptoms, and diphenhydramine, ondansetron, etc. can be selected.

Related drugs

Montmorillonite powder, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacillus licheniformis, Diphenhydramine, Ondansetron

operation treatment

This disease usually does not require surgery.

Other treatments

1. Replenish water in time. Patients with mild symptoms can choose oral rehydration, and those with severe dehydration should use intravenous rehydration.

2. Pay attention to correcting acidosis and electrolyte disorders, paying special attention to potassium, zinc, calcium, and other elements.

daily Overview

Patients should pay attention to rest in their daily life, avoid fatigue, maintain a comfortable mood, and help the body recover. At the same time, do personal hygiene, wash your hands before and after meals, and do not defecate anywhere. Teach children not to lick or suck their fingers or household objects.

Life management

1. Do a good job of personal hygiene and wash your hands before meals and after going to the toilet. Teach children not to lick, suck fingers, toys, etc.

2. Do not defecate anywhere, do a good job of disposal of feces.

3. Maintain indoor hygiene and clean household utensils in time.

4. Pay attention to rest, avoid staying up late, and don't overwork. 

5. Keep a good mood and relieve stress in time.

Diet conditioning

Patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea should fast first according to the doctor's recommendation, and then gradually resume their diet. After resuming the diet, you should choose light, easy-to-digest foods, avoid irritation to the digestive tract, and eat less spicy and greasy foods. Drink plenty of water, eat a balanced diet, and replenish nutrients that your body needs in time.

Dietary advice

1. Light diet, choose easy-to-digest foods, and choose porridge as the staple food.

2. The ingredients can be made into soup for consumption, which is conducive to digestion and can absorb water at the same time.

3. Ensure enough water intake every day to avoid dehydration.

4. Eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, and other foods appropriately.

Dietary taboos

1. Avoid spicy food, raw and cold food, wait until the temperature of the food is suitable before eating.

2. Eat less greasy, high-sugar foods.

3. Do not drink alcohol.

4. Avoid overeating.

prevention Precaution

1. Pay attention to food and drinking water hygiene, try to eat cooked food, and try not to eat in irregular restaurants. 

2. Do a good job of personal hygiene, wash your hands before and after meals, and manage feces.

3. Breast milk contains a certain amount of immune substances, so breastfeeding babies can be protected to a certain extent

4. The effective preventive measure is automatic immunization. Oral multivalent live attenuated vaccine may achieve good results, but it is still in the trial stage. You can consult a professional doctor.

5. During the epidemic seasons such as autumn, reduce going out and avoid crowded places.

Thanks For Reading Our Post We are very happy for you to come to our site. Need To Advertise With Us ?Write To Email:[email protected] https://www.lgists.com/
Newer Posts Newer Posts Older Posts Older Posts

Comments

Post a Comment
close