What is Malaria Fever? How To Prevent it

What is Malaria Fever? How To Prevent it
What is Malaria Fever? How To Prevent it
This is the commonest endemic disease in the tropics. It is caused by Plasmodium infection as a result of mosquito bites. It is the commonest cause of fever in our environment. The female anopheles mosquito is the vector.

There are four species of plasmodium namely;

1. Plasmodium Falciparium; 3. Plasmodium Ovale;

2. Plasmodium Malaria;

4. Plasmodium Vivax.

If a female anopheles mosquito bite and suck the blood of a person having malaria fever, the mosquito becomes infected. The male and female gametocytes in the infected blood grow and mature in the gastrointestinal tract of the mosquito. The male gamete is known as the microgame exflagellates. Fertilization then occurs to produce a zygote: The zygote progressively develops into an ookinete, young oocyte, and segmenting oocyte. The oocyte rupture to release sporozoites into the salivary gland of the mosquito.

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Should this mosquito bite another person, it deposits the sporozoites into the person's bloodstream. These sporozoites move from the blood into the liver within thirty minutes. Here they undergo development and break up hemoglobin to get oxygen and are therefore pigmented. These pigmented sporozoites are called merozoites. From the liver, these merozoites are released into the bloodstream. Most of these merozoites invade the red blood cells and some can re-infect the liver in a secondary exoerythrocytic cycle.

Development of the merozoites in the red blood cell produces trophozoites. Further multiplication of the trophozoites gives rise to schizonts. Schizonts rupture to produce more merozites. These merozoites differentiate into immature games which eventually mature into male and female garments.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF MALARIA FEVER

1. Fever may be accompanied by chills and rigor.

2. Headache.

3. Joint and body pain.

4. Sweating.

5. Los of appetite.

6. Weakness.

7. There may be nausea and or vomiting.

INVESTIGATIONS:- Blood Film

PREVENTION OF MALARIA FEVER

1. Good environmental sanitation by clearing surrounding bushes and providing adequate drainage.

2. Providing mosquito nets.

3. Taking daraprim tablets once every week especially amongst pregnant women and sicklers.

CURATIVE MANAGEMENT

Being the commonest disease condition in our environment many drug companies have research one form of treatment modalities or the other and have come up with as many antimalarial drugs as possible. But by far the most effective of all remain chloroquine and it has remained the mainstay of treatment. An antihistamine may be added for those who react to chloroquine.

The list of anti-malarial drugs is given below and it is up to the clinician to use any one of his choices.

Supportive drugs include:

1. Paludrine.

2. Maxine.

1. Intravenous fluid if indicated.

3. Malerisch.

2. analgesics.

4. Fansite.

3. haematinics.

5. Fansimef.

4. multivitamins

6. Metakeifin.

5. Anti-histamine.

7. Chloroquine.

8. Quinine.

9. Halfan.

COMPLICATIONS OF MALARIA FEVER

(a) Cerebral malaria especially in children.

(b) Anaemia.

(c) Jaundice.

(d) Blackwater fever.

Typical treatment:-

  • 1m Analgin 5cc stat
  • 1m Chloroquine 5cc
  • 1m Vitamin Bco 3cc diy x3
  • Tab Septrin #b-dx
  • Tab Pcm i tds xH
  • Tab Fergon+ tds x 54
  • Tab Multivite tds x 5

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