Prediabetes - Symptoms and cause

Prediabetes - Symptoms and cause
Posted by Lgists Media

When you have prediabetes, your blood sugar (glucose) levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed with diabetes. If you have prediabetes, you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Prediabetes - Symptoms and cause

The most common symptom of prediabetes is a high A1C level. A1C is a test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months. If your A1C level is higher than normal, it means your blood sugar levels have been consistently high.

Other symptoms of prediabetes include:

• Being overweight or obese

• Having high blood pressure

• Having high cholesterol

• Having a family history of diabetes

• Being physically active less than 3 times a week

• Having gestational diabetes ( diabetes during pregnancy)

• Giving birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds

If you have any of these risk factors, you should talk to your doctor about getting tested for prediabetes.

There are two types of tests used to diagnose prediabetes:

• The A1C test

• The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test

If your A1C level is between 5.7 and 6.4%, you have prediabetes. If your FPG level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, you also have prediabetes.

  • If you have prediabetes, you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and other health problems by:

• Losing a small amount of weight. Even a 5% to 7% weight loss can make a big difference.

• Increasing your physical activity. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, like walking, every week.

• Making healthy food choices. Eating lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help. Cutting back on foods that are high in sugar, fat, and calories can also help.

• Taking medicine, if needed. If you can’t reach your blood sugar goals with lifestyle changes alone, your doctor may prescribe medication.

If you have prediabetes, your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. Prediabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

If you have prediabetes, you may have some of the following symptoms:

- A1C test results of 5.7% to 6.4%. This test measures your average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months.

- A fasting plasma glucose test result of 100 to 125 mg/dL. This test measures your blood sugar after an overnight fast.

- A 2-hour plasma glucose test result of 140 to 199 mg/dL. This test measures your blood sugar after you drink a sugary drink.

If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor. You may have prediabetes.

Prediabetes is caused by a combination of things, including:

- Family history. If your parents or grandparents had diabetes, you're more likely to develop it.

- Age. The risk for prediabetes increases as you get older.

- Race. African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders are at higher risk for prediabetes.

- Obesity. About 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.

- Physical inactivity. People who are physically active have a lower risk for prediabetes.

- High blood pressure. About 1 in 3 adults with diabetes has high blood pressure.

- High cholesterol. About 1 in 3 adults with diabetes has high cholesterol.

- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a condition that affects women's hormone levels. Women with PCOS are at higher risk for prediabetes.

- Gestational diabetes. This is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. If you have gestational diabetes, you're more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

If you have prediabetes, you can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes by making lifestyle changes, including:

- Losing weight. If you're overweight or obese, losing just 5 to 10% of your body weight can lower your risk for type 2 diabetes.

- Increasing physical activity. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, like brisk walking, most days of the week.

- Eating healthy. Focus on eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Eat less saturated and trans fats, added sugars, and sodium (salt).

- Taking medication. If you can't make lifestyle changes alone, your doctor may prescribe medication to help lower your blood sugar levels.

If you have prediabetes, talk to your doctor about ways to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

If you have prediabetes, your blood sugar (glucose) levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. Prediabetes often has no symptoms, so you may not know you have it.

If you have prediabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body turn sugar (glucose) from the food you eat into energy.

If insulin can't do its job, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, this can damage your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and nerves.

Prediabetes is often diagnosed using one of these blood tests:

A1C test. This test shows your average blood sugar level for the past 2 or 3 months. An A1C level of 5.7% to 6.4% means you have prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests means you have diabetes.

Fasting blood sugar test. This test checks your blood sugar after an overnight fast (not eating for 8 hours). A fasting blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) means you have prediabetes. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher means you have diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is usually done after you fast for 8 hours. You will be given a sugary drink, and your blood sugar will be checked 2 hours later. A blood sugar level of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) 2 hours after the drink means you have prediabetes. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher means you have diabetes.

If you have prediabetes, you are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. You can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and other health problems by losing a small amount of weight, eating healthy foods, and being active for 30 minutes most days of the week.

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